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Koronavirüs Hastalığı (COVID-19)

Aradığınız en ilginç bilgiler

Corona (Korona) virüsü hayvanlar arasında yaygın olan büyük bir virüs grubudur. Nadir durumlarda, bilim insanlarının zoonotik olarak adlandırdığı durumdur, yani hayvanlardan insanlara bulaşabilirler. Coronavirus’lar (Cov), soğuk algınlığından Orta Doğu Solunum Sendromu (MERS – CoV) ve Ağır Akut Solunum Sendromu (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV) gibi daha ciddi hastalıklara neden olan bir virüs ailesidir. Yapılan kapsamlı araştırmalar sonucunda, SARS-CoV’un misk kedilerinden, MERS-CoV’un ise tek hörgüçlü develerden insanlara bulaştığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Henüz insanlara bulaşmamış olan ancak hayvanlarda saptanan birçok coronavirüs (koronavirüs) mevcuttur.

covid-19

Coronavirus’ların insanlarda dolaşımda olan alt tipleri (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 ve HKU1-CoV) çoğunlukla soğuk algınlığına sebep olan virüslerdir. SARS-CoV, 21. Yüzyılın ilk uluslararası sağlık acil durumu olarak 2003 yılında, daha önceden bilinmeyen bir virüs halinde ortaya çıkmış olup yüzlerce insanın hayatını kaybetmesine neden olmuştur. Yaklaşık 10 yıl sonra Coronavirus (koronavirüs) ailesinden, daha önce insan ya da hayvanlarda varlığı gösterilmemiş olan MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) Eylül 2012’de ilk defa insanlarda Suudi Arabistan’da tanımlanmış; ancak daha sonra aslında ilk vakaların Nisan 2012’de Ürdün Zarqa’daki bir hastanede görüldüğü ortaya çıkmıştır.

31 Aralık 2019’da DSÖ Çin Ülke Ofisi, Çin’in Hubei eyaletinin Vuhan şehrinde etiyolojisi bilinmeyen pnömoni vakalarını bildirmiştir. 7 Ocak 2020’de etken daha önce insanlarda tespit edilmemiş yeni Coronavirus (koronavirüs) (2019-nCoV) olarak tanımlanmıştır. Daha sonra 2019-nCoV hastalığının adı COVID-19 olarak kabul edilmiştir.

Coronaviruslar (Koronavirüs), Coronaviridae ailesi içinde bulunurlar. Başlıca dört türde sınıflandırılırlar. Bunlar: Alfa, Beta, Gama ve Delta Coronaviruslar’dır (koronavirüs). İnsan, yarasa, domuz, kedi, köpek, kemirgen ve kanatlılarda bulunabilmektedirler. (evcil ve yabani hayvanlarda). İnsanlarda Coronavirus’un (koronavirüs) neden olduğu hastalık spektrumu basit soğuk algınlığından ağır akut solunum sendromuna (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS) kadar değişkenlik gösterebilmektedir. İnsan ve hayvanlarda çeşitli derecelerde respiratuar, enterik, hepatik, nefrotik ve nörolojik tutumlarda seyreden klinik tablolara neden olabilmektedir. COVID-19 virüsü, SARS-CoV ve MERS-CoV’unda içine bulunduğu beta-coronavirus (beta- koronavirüs) ailesi içinde yer almaktadır.

covid-19


Corona (Korona) virüsü hayvanlar arasında yaygın olan büyük bir virüs grubudur. Nadir durumlarda, bilim insanlarının zoonotik olarak adlandırdığı durumdur, yani hayvanlardan insanlara bulaşabilirler.Corona (Korona) virüsü hayvanlar arasında yaygın olan büyük bir virüs grubudur. Nadir durumlarda, bilim insanlarının zoonotik olarak adlandırdığı durumdur, yani hayvanlardan insanlara bulaşabilirler.

Coronavirus’lar (Cov), soğuk algınlığından Orta Doğu Solunum Sendromu (MERS – CoV) ve Ağır Akut Solunum Sendromu (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV) gibi daha ciddi hastalıklara neden olan bir virüs ailesidir. Yapılan kapsamlı araştırmalar sonucunda, SARS-CoV’un misk kedilerinden, MERS-CoV’un ise tek hörgüçlü develerden insanlara bulaştığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Henüz insanlara bulaşmamış olan ancak hayvanlarda saptanan birçok coronavirüs (koronavirüs) mevcuttur.

Coronavirus’ların insanlarda dolaşımda olan alt tipleri (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 ve HKU1-CoV) çoğunlukla soğuk algınlığına sebep olan virüslerdir. SARS-CoV, 21. Yüzyılın ilk uluslararası sağlık acil durumu olarak 2003 yılında, daha önceden bilinmeyen bir virüs halinde ortaya çıkmış olup yüzlerce insanın hayatını kaybetmesine neden olmuştur. Yaklaşık 10 yıl sonra Coronavirus (koronavirüs) ailesinden, daha önce insan ya da hayvanlarda varlığı gösterilmemiş olan MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) Eylül 2012’de ilk defa insanlarda Suudi Arabistan’da tanımlanmış; ancak daha sonra aslında ilk vakaların Nisan 2012’de Ürdün Zarqa’daki bir hastanede görüldüğü ortaya çıkmıştır.

31 Aralık 2019’da DSÖ Çin Ülke Ofisi, Çin’in Hubei eyaletinin Vuhan şehrinde etiyolojisi bilinmeyen pnömoni vakalarını bildirmiştir. 7 Ocak 2020’de etken daha önce insanlarda tespit edilmemiş yeni Coronavirus (koronavirüs) (2019-nCoV) olarak tanımlanmıştır. Daha sonra 2019-nCoV hastalığının adı COVID-19 olarak kabul edilmiştir.

Coronaviruslar (Koronavirüs), Coronaviridae ailesi içinde bulunurlar. Başlıca dört türde sınıflandırılırlar. Bunlar: Alfa, Beta, Gama ve Delta Coronaviruslar’dır (koronavirüs). İnsan, yarasa, domuz, kedi, köpek, kemirgen ve kanatlılarda bulunabilmektedirler. (evcil ve yabani hayvanlarda). İnsanlarda Coronavirus’un (koronavirüs) neden olduğu hastalık spektrumu basit soğuk algınlığından ağır akut solunum sendromuna (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS) kadar değişkenlik gösterebilmektedir. İnsan ve hayvanlarda çeşitli derecelerde respiratuar, enterik, hepatik, nefrotik ve nörolojik tutumlarda seyreden klinik tablolara neden olabilmektedir. COVID-19 virüsü, SARS-CoV ve MERS-CoV’unda içine bulunduğu beta-coronavirus (beta- koronavirüs) ailesi içinde yer almaktadır.

Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) Virüs Belirtileri ve Çeşitleri Nelerdir?

Bu virüs grubuna bağlı virüsler, genellikle soğuk algınlığına benzer şekilde, hafif ve orta derecede üst solunum yolu hastalığı olan insanları hasta edebilir.

Corona (COVID19-Korona) Virüsü Belirtileri:

  • Birkaç gün süren yüksek ateş (38.3°C ve üzeri),
  • Balgamlı ve/veya Kuru ökürük,
  • Boğaz ağrısı,
  • Nefes darlığı (Nefes alma güçlüğü),
  • Baş ağrısı

Bağışıklık sistemi zayıf olan ileri yaştakiler ve çok genç olanlar için virüsün pnömoni veya bronşit gibi çok daha ciddi solunum yolu hastalığına neden olabilir. İnsanlarda ölümcül olabilecek seviyede çok az Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) virüsü vardır.

Aynı zamanda solunum problemlerine neden olan, MERS virüsü olarak da bilinen Ortadoğu Solunum Sendromu ilk olarak 2012 yılında Orta Doğu’da tespit edilmiştir. Hastalık Kontrol Merkezleri’nin verdiği bilgiye göre semptomları çok daha şiddetli olan MERS ile enfekte olan her 10 hastanın dörtte üçü ölmüştür.

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Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) Virüs Nasıl Bulaşır?

Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) virüsleri hayvanlarla insan temasından yayılabilir. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü’ne göre MERS’in develer arasında, SARS’ın ise misk kedileri arasında yayıldığını düşünülüyor. Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) virüslerinin insandan insana bulaşması, genellikle sağlıklı bir insanın enfekte bir insanın vücut salgılarıyla temas etmesi sonucu mümkün oluyor. Virüs hasta insanlardan öksürme, hapşırma yoluyla ortaya saçılan damlacıklarla ve hastaların temas ettiği yüzeylerden göz, ağız, burun mukozası ve el sıkışma ile bulaşabilir. Coronaviruslar (koronavirüs) genel olarak dış ortamda dayanıklılığı olmayan virüslerdir. Ancak bugün için COVID-19’un bulaşıcılık süresi ve dış ortama dayanma süresi net olarak bilinmemektedir.

Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) Virüs Tedavi Yöntemleri Nelerdir?

Özel bir tedavi yöntemi yoktur. Çoğu zaman belirtiler kendiliğinden kaybolur. Uzman hekimler teşhis sonrası ağrı kesici ve ateş düşürücü ilaçlar ile belirtileri hafifletmek için tedavi uygulayabilirler. Yaşam alanlarındaki oda neminin dengelenmesi ve ılık duş ile boğaz ağrısı ve/veya öksürüğün hafiflemesine destek sağlanabilir. Ayrıca bol sıvı tüketmek, dinlenmek ve uyku tedavi için faydalı olacaktır. Belirtiler standart soğuk algınlığı sürecinden daha kötü seyretmeye başlarsa mutlaka uzman hekime danışılması gerekir.

Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) Virüsten Korunma İçin Neler Yapılabilir?

Henüz Corona / Covid-19 (Korona) virüs ailesine karşı koruma sağlayacak bir aşı bulunmamaktadır. MERS aşısı için deneme süreci devam etmektedir. Korunmak için basit önlemler oldukça faydalı olacaktır.

Dünya Sağlık Örgütü,

  • Enfekte olmuş kişilerle yakın temastan kaçınmanın,
  • El hijyenine dikkat etmenin, sık aralıklarla elleri en az 20 saniye sabun ve su ile yıkamanın; sabun ve su olmadığı durumlarda alkol bazlı el antiseptiği kullanmanın; özellikle hasta insanlar veya çevresi ile doğrudan temas ettikten sonra elleri mutlaka yıkamanın,
  • Çiftlik veya vahşi hayvanlarla korunmasız temastan kaçınmanın,
  • Enfekte olduysanız eğer, mesafeyi korumanın, öksürürken, hapşırırken tek kullanımlık kağıt mendil ile ağızın ve burnun kapatılmasının; kağıt mendilin bulunmadığı durumlarda ise dirsek içinin kullanılmasının, ellerin yıkanmasının; gözlerinize, burnunuza ve ağzınıza dokunmaktan kaçınmanın,
  • Enfekte olan kişilerin dokunduğu yüzeylerin dezenfekte edilmesinin,
  • Et, yumurta gibi hayvansal gıdaların iyice pişirilmesinin,
  • Hasta kişilerin mümkünse kalabalık yerlere girmemesinin, eğer girmek zorunda kalınıyorsa ağız ve burnun kapatılmasının, mümkünse tıbbi maske kullanılmasının önemli olduğunu belirtmiştir.
covid-19 korunma yolları
covid-19